27.03.2024Rethinking the Control of Text-to-Image Diffusion Models as Feedback-Control Systems

The field of image synthesis has made tremendous strides forward in the last years. Besides defining the desired output image with text-prompts, an intuitive approach is to additionally use spatial guidance in form of an image, such as a depth map. In state-of-the-art approaches, this guidance is realized by a separate controlling model that controls a pre-trained image generation network, such as a latent diffusion model. Understanding this process from a control system perspective shows that it forms a feedback-control system, where the control module receives a feedback signal from the generation process and sends a corrective signal back. When analysing existing systems, we observe that the feedback signals are timely sparse and have a small number of bits. As a consequence, there can be long delays between newly generated features and the respective corrective signals for these features. It is known that this delay is the most unwanted aspect of any control system. In this work, we take an existing controlling network and change the communication between the controlling network and the generation process to be of high-frequency and with large-bandwidth. By doing so, we are able to considerably improve the quality of the generated images, as well as the fidelity of the control. Also, the controlling network needs noticeably fewer parameters and hence is about twice as fast during inference and training time. Another benefit of small-sized models is that they help to democratise our field and are likely easier to understand. We call our proposed network ControlNet-XS. When comparing with the state-of-the-art approaches, we outperform them for pixel-level guidance, such as depth, canny-edges, and semantic segmentation, and are on a par for loose keypoint-guidance of human poses. All code and pre-trained models will be made publicly available.

Rethinking the Control of Text-to-Image Diffusion Models as Feedback-Control Systems

Original Publication

Denis Zavadski, Johann-Friedrich Feiden, Carsten Rother
Rethinking the Control of Text-to-Image Diffusion Models as Feedback-Control Systems
arXiv:2312.06573 [cs.CV] or arXiv:2312.06573v1[cs.CV] for this version) 11. Dec 2023

Further Information